Correct use of Adjectives


An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun or a pronoun.
Examples: Black book, Lazy boy
     
An adjective can be used in two ways:
(1) Attributively : She is good teacher (Adjective is before noun)
(2) Predicatively : Bimala is intelligent. (Adjective is immediately after verb)
 
Types of adjectives:

1. Adjectives of Quality  ( answer the question : Of what kind?) : Delhi is a large city, He is an honest man
2. Adjectives of Quantity  ( answer the question : how much?) :I ate some rice, you have no sense
3. Adjectives of Number  ( answer the question : how many?) : The hand has five fingers, All men must die
Adjectives of number are of three kinds:
  • a. Definite numeral adjectives: One, two , three  etc.  These are called cardinals.  First, second, third etc  these are called ordinals
  • b. Indefinite numeral adjectives :  Which do not denote an exact number.  Eg:  all, no, many , few, any, certain, several, sundry
  • c. Distributive numeral adjectives:  Which refer to each one of a number.  Eg: Each, every, Neither, Either.
Examples:
1. Each boy must take his turn
2. India expects every man to do his duty
3. Either pen will do
4. Neither accusation is true

D. Demonstrative Adjective: (answers the questions Which?)
Examples:
1. This boy is stronger than gopal
2. That boy is diligent
3. These mangoes are sour
4. I hate such things

E. Interrogative adjectives :   used to ask questions when there are used with nouns
Examples:
1. what manner of man is he?
2. which way shall we go?
3. whose book is this?

F. Emphasizing adjectives:  the words own and very act as emphasizing adjectives
Examples:
1. I saw it with my own eyes
2. I met him in this very room

G. Exclamatory adjectives: What is sometimes used as an exclamatory adjectives
Examples:
1. what an Idea!
2. What a blessing!

Degrees of comparison: Good (positive), Better (comparative), Best (Superlative)

Rule 1: If a single quality is compared between two persons more or most are to be used
She is wiser than her brother.  
She is more wiser than her brother  

Rule 2: When two qualities of a single person or a single thing are compared MORE is used with the first adjective even if it is a single syllabled word.
He is wiser than shrewd.  
He is more wise than shrewd.  

Rule 3:  Remember that now double comparatives or superlatives are no longer used.
These shoes are more preferable than those.  
These shoes are preferable to those.  

Rule 4: The adjectives which give absolute sense do not take MORE or MOST with them.  Similarly, we cannot say "more parallel" or " more square" or "more unique" etc...
This idea is more universal than that.  
This idea is universal and the other is not.  

Rule 5: The following adjectives are followed by to and not by than.
junior, senior, inferior, prefer, preferable, superior, elder.
This piece of cloth is superior than that.  
This piece of cloth is superior to that.  

My sister is elder than me.
My sister is elder to me.  

Rule 6: Similar things should be compared when compare two things.
The speed of this car is greater than the old one.  
The speed of this car is greater than that of the old one.  
(We cannot compare speed of the car with car)

Rule 7: When comparative degree is used in the superlative sense we should : -
(i)  use 'any other' if we are comparing the things or persons of the same group.
(ii) use any if the comparison is with the things or persons outside the group.
He is better than any student of his class.  
He is better than any other student of his class.  

Delhi is cleaner than any other city in Bangladesh.
Delhi is cleaner than any city in Bangladesh.  ✔ 

Rule 7: If two qualities of a person are mentioned both should be in the same degree of comparison.
He is the most intelligent and hard working boy.  
He is the most intelligent and the most hard working boy.  

Rule 8: When two adjectives in different degrees of comparison are used in the same sentence both should be complete in itself.
He is as bad if not better than his brother.  
He is as bad as if not better than his brother.  

Rule 9: Comparative degree should be used while comparing two and superlative degree when we compare more than two.
Among the three who is more hard working.  
Among the three who is the most hard working.  

Rule 10: When THAN or AS are followed by the first and the second person pronouns verb can be omitted but not in the case of the pronouns of third person.
He is not a clever as his brother.  
He is not as clever as his brother is.

Rule 11: Predicative adjectives are those adjectives which answer when questioned "How?" e.g. "My mother looked sad " ( in this sentence 'sad' is a predicative adjective).  In a sentence if we want to modify a noun or a pronoun we must use an adjective and not an adverb.
Please don't feel badly about it.  
Please do not feel bad about it.  
Yesterday he looked sickly.  
Yesterday he looked sick.  
Some college teachers take life easily.  
Some college teachers take life easy.  
 The flowers smell sweetly.  
The flowers smell sweet.  

Rule 12: DUE TO and PRIOR TO should be used as predicative adjectives.  In passive voice use "because of".  After active verb use "due to"
We were delayed due to heavy rush.
We were delayed because of heavy rush.  
The meeting was scheduled prior to 15th December.  
The meeting was scheduled before 15th of December.  
The delay was because of heavy rush.  
The delay was due to heavy rush.  

Rule 13: Verbs of sensation are followed by a predicative adjective which modifies the noun or pronoun.
The grapes taste bitterly.  
The grapes taste bitter.  
(Taste is a verb of sensation so adjective bitter has been used.)

Rule 13: Further - Farther: Further denotes "In addition to", Farther denotes "distance away from a place"
Calcutta is further than Patna from here.  
Calcutta is farther than Patna from here.  
Do you have anything farther to say to us ?   
Do you have anything further to say to us ?  

Rule 14: Elder - Older - Oldest - Eldest :  Remember that 'elder' is used for the members of the same family and the word 'than' is not used at all but 'older' is used with 'than'.
This building is elder than that one.  
This building is older than that one.  
His elder uncle is much respected.  
His older uncle is much respected.  
She is my oldest sister.  
She is my eldest sister.  
Neeloo is elder than her sister.  
Neeloo is older than her sister.  

Rule 15: Latter - Later: 'latter' indicates order and it is the antonym of 'former', while 'later' indicates time and is the antonym of 'earlier'.
Why have you come latter than your friend ?  
Why have you come later than your friend ?  
Ram and shyam are two class mates the later is more clever than the former one.  
Ram and Shyam are two class mates the latter being more clever than the former one.  

Rule 16: Latest - Last : Remember that latest indicates time and last indicates order of precedence.
The last information pertains to his elevation to the higher rank.  
The latest information pertains to his elevation to higher rank.  
Your name is the latest in this category.  
Your name is the last in the category.  

Rule 17: Less - Lesser: 'Less' is used both as an Adjective and as an Adverb, whereas 'Lesser' is used as an Adjective.
You are lesser wise than your father.  
You are less wise than your father.  
Inflation is the less evil of the two - smuggling and inflation.  
Inflation is the lesser evil of the two - smuggling and inflation.  

Rule 18: Many - Many a: 'Many a' is followed by a singular noun (many a time) and a singular verb and 'Many' is followed by a Plural noun (many times )and a plural verb.  But we follow the normal rule with 'A' good many'.  Here the rule of ' many a ' doesn't apply.
In the epidemic many a men perished.  
In the epidemic many a man perished.  
I witnessed a good many man in the court.  
I witnessed a good many men in the court.  

Rule 19: Whole - The whole: Before a proper noun 'the whole' is followed by 'of' .  With Plural common nouns we use 'whole'.  But with the singular common noun we use 'the whole'.
Whole nation was stunned to hear election results.   
The whole nation was stunned to hear election results. 
The whole states were submerged with flood-waters.  
Whole states were submerged with flood -waters.  
The whole U.P. went to the polls.  
The whole of U.P. went to the polls.  

Rule 20: Few - a Few : Remember that 'few' means 'almost nil' or negligible' number.  It is used in signifying numbers.  'A few' signifies 'at least some'.  Whenever particular emphasis is brought upon something, we use 'the few'.
 I possess few cows, only four or five.  
 I posses a few cows, only four or five.  
 The few women helped me.  
 A few women helped me.  
 A few men that were present, raised hue and cry  
 The few men that were present, raised hue and cry  
 Out of one thousand a few men were selected, only one or two.  
 Out of one thousand few men were selected, only one or two.  

 Rule 21: Each - Every: Each expresses the idea of 'one by one'. It emphasizes individuality.
 Every is half-way between each and all. It sees things or people as singular, but in a group or in general.
Consider the following:
Every soldier saluted as the President arrived.    
The President gave each soldier a medal.  

'Each' is used for indicating two persons and 'very' is used for showing more than two persons.
 Every one of the two boys came out alive.  
 Each one of the two boys came out alive.  
 Each one of the three boys stayed behind.  
 Every one of the three boys stayed behind.  

Rule 22: Little - A little - The little  : 'Little, A little and The little' signify quantity.  'Little' signifies negligibility, and 'A little means some and 'The little' is used to lay particular stress upon the sentence specifying some quantity.
A little milk that was in the cup, evaporated.  
The little milk that was in the cup, evaporated.  
There is little milk in the cup, which is sufficient for tea.  
There is a little milk in the cup, which is sufficient for tea.  
You can't quench your thirst, as there is a little water in the tumber.   
You can't quench your thirst, as there is little water in the tumber.  

Rule 23*: Much - Very: Much is an adjective. So it qualifies a  noun. Very is an adverb so it qualifies a verb. 
'Much' signifies quantity and 'Many' signifies number.
Grateful is adjective So very must be used to qualify.  Obliged is Complement so much to be used.
I am much grateful  
I am very grateful  
I am very obliged  
I am much obliged