Earth is the place which offers a habitat not only for human beings but also for different living beings like animals, birds and insects. Almost 70% of earth is covered with water resources like oceans and seas which offers habitat for different aquatic animals. Remaining 30% of land comprises of mountains, valleys, forests and grass lands etc. which offer shelter for several terrestrial animals like lions, tigers, pandas, deers etc. Among all these living beings humans are the only beings which are awarded with capability to think. In search of valuables minerals present in these areas, the forests and mountains are depleting day by day reducing the living habitat of animals. In order to prevent the further damage of environment United Nations Organization (UNO) started several initiatives in which the current Bio-diversity meet in India is one.
With an intention to protect the biodiversity of earth UNO prepared an agreement in the year 1992. That agreement was signed by 168 countries which now together known as Conference Of Parties (COP). All these countries attend an annual meeting to discuss the current position and to propose necessary measures to enhance biodiversity on earth. The meeting at Hyderabad is eleventh meeting known as COP11. Earlier this organization proposed two protocols with the names Kartezena protocol and Nagoya protocol each having their own importance.
Kartezena protocol is meant to reduce the effects of LMOs (Living Modified Organisms) on biodiversity. LMOs are nothing but the organisms whose genetic structure is modified as to fulfill a particular purpose. The genetically modified seeds are the well known example for LMOs in which a bacteria with the name Bacillus Thurengenesis to protect plant from external pests. The government of Brazil introduced GM mosquitoes to prevent dengue from their nation. But the neighboring countries expressed their fury over that work and fearing about the consequences of the effects generated by these new insects. According to the above agreement every nation should intimate other nations about their work on LMOs.
Nagoya protocol is another agreement which is meant for fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising due to utilization of genetic resources. These frame works will abide world nations to conserve and promote the biodiversity on earth, which is highly essential for the sustenance of mankind.
UNO organizes 5th of June as international day of environment, 22nd of May as international day of Bio-diversity. It declared the year 2011 as international year of forests and the decade 2011-2020 as decade of Bio-diversity. These kinds of summits will create awareness among the common citizens and guide and intimate governments about the levels of Bio-diversity in their respective nations. If you take the example of India, few years back the Government of India initiated a scheme with the name “save tiger” to increase the Indian tiger’s number. With that initiative the population of Indian national animal increased and protected from becoming extinct. But recently we have seen most of the kazeranga forest reserve got submerged due to heavy floods in the state of Assam. Due to which several rhinos moved into dry and unsafe places which gave an opportunity to poachers to hunt them for their tusks. This can be considered as an example of poor maintenance and inadequate security in animal habitats.
Thus the preservation of biodiversity which include wildlife and forests will enhance human life on the earth. If we would like to protect wild animals, we have to protect forests from deforestation which further reduces the green house gases which keeps our living environment safe and make life on earth sustainable.