Valance (n):  val-uhns,
A valance is a piece of cloth that hangs down over the sides of a bed in order to make it look nice
Front and rear valances also bolt on, but are more costly than the sills to replace

Vanguard (n): van-gahrd
The vanguard of an army is the part of it that goes into battle first = forerunners, advance forces
The shop has always been in the vanguard of London fashion trends

Vantage (n):  van-tij
A vantage point is a place from which you can see a lot of things
They fired upon the enemy from behind trees, walls and any other point of vantage they could find

Valetudinarian (n):  val-i-tood-n-air-ee-uhn

Vampire (n):  vam-pahyuhr (1455)
A vampire is a creature in legends and horror stories Vampires are said to come out of graves at night and suck the blood of living people
Everyone knows that, who knows anything about vampires

Vassal (n):  vas-uhl
In feudal society, a vassal was a man who gave military service to a lord, in return for which he was protected by the lord and received land to live on
He was a vassal, as indeed his father had been forty years earlier

Vellum (n):  vel-uhm
Vellum is strong paper of good quality for writing on = parchment

Vendetta (n):  ven-det-uh
If one person has a vendetta against another, the first person wants revenge for something the second person did to them in the past = feud, private warfare
The vice president said the cartoonist has a personal vendetta against him

Veneer (n):  vuh-neer
If you refer to the pleasant way that someone or something appears as a veneer, you are critical of them because you believe that their true, hidden nature is not good = thin layer, cover
A thin veneer of politeness hid her growing anger

Vent (n):  vent (1460)
A vent is a hole in something through which air can come in and smoke, gas, or smells can go out = duct, a small opening; outlet
There was a small air vent in the ceiling

Verbiage (n):  vur-bee-ij
If you refer to someone’s speech or writing as verbiage, you are critical of them because they use too many words, which makes their speech or writing difficult to understand
The article is a mere verbiage and has little value to convey

Verisimilitude (n):  ver-uh-si-mil-i-tood, -tyood
Verisimilitude is the quality of seeming to be true or real
To add verisimilitude, the stage is covered with sand for the desert scenes

Verity (n):  ver-i-tee
The verities of something are all the things that are believed to be true about it = reality
She has spent her life in a search for  eternal verities

Vernacular (n):  ver-nak-yuh-ler
The vernacular is the language or dialect that is most widely spoken by ordinary people in a region or country
Gautam Budda preached in the vernacular Pali language instead of highly complex Sanskrit to reach to a larger audiance

Vertex (n):  vur-teks (1465)
The point where two lines meet to form an angle, especially the point of a triangle

Vertigo (n):  vur-ti-goh
If you get vertigo when you look down from a high place, you feel unsteady and sick = dizziness
We test potential plane pilots for susceptibility to spells of vertigo

Vestige (n):  ves-tij
A vestige of something is a very small part that still remains of something that was once much larger or more important
There is not a vestige of truth in the  rumor

Viand (n):  vahy-uhnd

Vicissitudes (n):  vi-sis-i-tood, -tyood
You use vicissitudes to refer to changes, especially unpleasant ones, that happen to someone or something at different times in their life or development
The vicissitudes of his life are a thing of the past, he is a successful interior designer now

Victuals (n):  vahy-uhnd (1470)
Food and drink

Vigilance (n):  vij-uh-luhns
Someone who is vigilant gives careful attention to a particular problem or situation and concentrates on noticing any danger or trouble that there might be= alert
Constant vigilance is necessary in order to avoid accidents in driving

Viper (n):  vahy-per
A viper is a small poisonous snake found mainly in Europe  =  poisonous snake

Virago (n):  vi-rah-goh
An offensive word for an angry woman who often argues with people = shrew
The poor man has a virago of a wife

Virtuoso  (n):  vur-choo-oh-soh
A virtuoso is someone who is extremely good at something, especially at playing a musical instrument
AR Rehman  is a Piano virtuoso

Virus (n):  vahy-ruhs (1475)
A virus is a kind of germ that can cause disease = disease communicator
There are many different strains of flu virus

Visage (n):  viz-ij
Someone’s visage is their face = face
The visage of the leader was used time and again in the caricature

Vivisection (n):  viv-uh-sek-shuhn
Vivisection is the practice of using live animals for scientific experiments
He is a fierce opponent of vivisection

Vogue (n): vohg
If there is a vogue for something, it is very popular and fashionable
Jeans became the vogue on many college campuses

Volition (n):  voh-lish-uhn, vuh-
Your volition is the power you have to decide something for yourself = free will
They left entirely of their own volition (because they wanted to)

Votary (n):  voh-tuh-ree (1480)
A follower of a cult
Maneka Gandhi is a votary of animal rights

Waif (n):  weyf
If you refer to a child or young woman as a waif, you mean that they are very thin and look as if they have nowhere to live
We can see so many waifs on streets begging food

Warranty (n):  wawr-uhn-tee
A warranty is a written promise by a company that, if you find a fault in something they have sold you within a certain time, they will repair it or replace it free of charge = guarantee, assurance by seller
The car is still under warranty

Wastrel (n):  wey-struhl
If you describe someone as a wastrel you mean that they are lazy and spend their time and money on foolish things = profligate
The old man bequeathed nothing for his wastreal son

Welkin (n):  wel-kin
The sky

Welt (n):  welt (1485)
A welt is a mark which is made on someone’s skin, usually by a blow from something such as a whip or sword = injury
My new shoes have caused welts all over my feet

Whit (n):  hwit, wit
A smallest speck
Over the years she hasn’t changed a whit

Whorl (n):  hwurl, hwawrl, wurl, wawrl
A whorl is a spiral shape, for example the pattern on the tips of your fingers
Each flower is composed of an inner whorl of three petal and an outer trio of sepals

Whorl (n):  hwurl
A whorl is a spiral shape, for example the pattern on the tips of your fingers = ring of leaves around stem, ring
He stared at the whorls and lines of her fingertips

Witticism (n):  wit-uh-siz-uhm
A witticism is a witty remark or joke

Wizardry (n):  wiz-er-dree (1490)
You can refer to a very clever achievement or piece of work as wizardry, especially when you do not understand how it is done = sorcery,  magic
High-speed Internet connections and other technical wizardry confused the new student

Wont (n):  wawnt, wohnt, wuhnt
If someone is wont to do something, they often or regularly do it = routine
She got up early, as it was her wont

Wraith (n):  reyth
A wraith is a ghost
That child flits about like a wraith

Wrath (n):  rath, rahth or, especially Brit, rawth
Wrath means the same as anger
‘Where have you been?’ she screamed in wrath

 (n):  zen-uh-foh-bee-uh
Xenophobia is strong and unreasonable dislike or fear of people from other countries
The European Union will not allow xenophobia and racism to take root in its member countries

(n):  yahrd-stik (1495)
Something that you compare another thing with, in order to judge how good or successful it is
Profit is the most important yardstick of success for any business

Yeoman (n):  yoh-muhn
In former times, a yeoman was a man who was free and not a servant, and who owned and worked on his own land = man owning small estate, middle-class farmer
The definition of yeomen was complex, a matter of subtle distinctions

Yokel (n):  yoh-kuh
If you refer to someone as a yokel, you think they are uneducated and stupid because they come from the countryside = bumpkin
Nature alone can not influence an unschooled yokel

Yore (n):  yawr, yohr
Of yore is used to refer to a period of time in the past = of old
The images provoked strong surges of nostalgia for the days of yore

Zealot (n):  zel-uht
If you describe someone as a zealot, you think that their views and actions are very extreme, especially in following a particular political or religious belief
He was forceful, but by no means a zealot

Zenith (n):  zee-nith (1500)
The zenith of something is the time when it is most successful or powerful  = peak
His career is now at its zenith

Zephyr (n):  zef-er
A soft gentle wind
As the windows facing the lush green lawns were opened, a zephyr passed through the room